Properties and usage of soil and rock as pavement materials. Selection and characterisation of subgrade, sub-base and base materials. Properties and usage of bitumens, and asphalts. Polymers and other additives. Manufacture and use of bituminous concrete. Mix design. Sprayed seals. Concrete for rigid pavements and sub-bases. Types of pavement, selection on basis of cost and performance. Sub-grade conditions, working platforms. Role of environmental factors including temperature and moisture. Soil moisture equilibria and drainage requirements. Prediction and characterisation of traffic loadings. Stress distribution in flexible and rigid pavements. Computer-based and approximate methods of analysis. Principles of mechanistic design. Comparative evaluation of design criteria and design procedures for flexible and rigid pavements for roads. Stabilisation using cement, line and bitumen. Types of pavement distress, their origins and remedy. Evaluation and prediction of pavement condition. Pavement instrumentation and monitoring. Measurement and report of physical distress including cracking, rutting and roughness. Pavement maintenance for flexible and rigid pavements. Over-lays and membranes. Recycling. Maintenance scheduling and management.