This course will introduce the student to reference coordinate systems and time systems, satellite orbital motion, signal propagation and satellite tracking observables. The principles of positioning using the current two Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be studied: the U.S. developed Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). The mathematical models for pseudo-range and carrier phase-based modes of positioning, for both single receiver (absolute) positioning and relative positioning implementations, will be developed. These principles will be illustrated using the Matlab GNSS toolkit, allowing students to develop algorithms for real and simulated data processing. Land, marine and airborne positioning applications will be discussed.